Boundary Commission

1876 085 Kahuku Ranch Co.
Certification: 085
Ahupua`a: Kahuku, Pt.1
District: Kau
Island: Hawaii
Ownership: Kahuku Ranch Co.
Year: 1876
Statistics: 63121 characters 11316 words
Kahuku Ahupuaa, District of Kau, Island of Hawaii, Boundary Commission, Hawaii, Volume A, No. 1, pps 122-158

The Ahupuaa of Kahuku, District of Kau, Island of Hawaii, 3rd Judicial Circuit

On this, the eleventh day of March A.D. 1873 the Commission of Boundaries for the 3rd Judicial Circuit, Island of Hawaii met at the Court House, Waiohinu, Kau, pursuant to notice in Hawaiian Gazette of February 5th and Auokoa of February 6th, 1873, and notice personally served on owners of adjoining lands as far as known for the hearing of the application of Kahuku Ranch Co. for the settlement of the boundaries of Ahupuaa of Kahuku situated in the District of Kau, Island of Hawaii.

Present: G.W. Jones; L. Kaina; W.H. Reed and C.E. Richardson on part of applicants; J.G. Hoapili for Crown Commissioners, Her Excellency R. Keelikolani, for Districts of Kona and Kau and Government Lands in Kona; J. Kauhane for Hawaiian Government, W.T. Martin for self and leased land of Pakininui, L.R. Macomber and others for self and J. Kauhane for Kau Lands.

Petition read as follows:
(Copy) Kahuku, April 8th, 1872, Honorable R.A. Lyman, Hilo
We wish to apply to you as the Boundary Commissioner for the Island of Hawaii for a settlement of the boundaries of the land of Kahuku, Kau, recently purchased by us.

As near as we can ascertain, the lands joining Kahuku on the Kona side are:
Manuka, belonging to the government
Kaulanamauna, belonging to the government
Kapua, belonging to the Governess of Hawaii
Okoe, belonging to the government
Honomalino, belonging to the Crown
Omokaa, belonging to the government
Kalihi, belonging to the government
Milolii, belonging to the government
Wapuloa, belonging to the government
Anapuka, belonging to the government
Papa 1st, belonging to the government
Papa 2nd, belonging to Kaopua
Alika, belonging to the government
Kipahoehoe, belonging to the government [page 123]
Kaapuna, belonging to Kahaulelio
And the land of Keauhiu in Kona, the owners of which we are unable to give, but which we understand joins Kahuku, on the top of the mountain.

On the Kau side the lands adjoining Kahuka [sic] are:
Paakini Nui owned by His Majesty
Kiao, owned by W.T. Martin
Palena, owned by W.T. Martin and B. Naihe
Na Keaa belonging to the government
Waiopaa, belonging to the government
Mohoai, belonging to the government
Pueo, belonging to the government
Kawela, Belonging to Governess of Hawaii
Waiopua, belonging to L. Macomber
Kau, belonging to the government
Napopohaku, belonging to the government
Keolakaa, belonging to the government
Waiohinu, belonging to the Crown
Heionaaa, belonging to the government
Kalaiki, belonging to the government
Na Hilea, belonging to His Majesty
Ninole, belonging to the government
Wailau, belonging to the government
Punaluu, belonging to His Majesty
Mohokea, belonging to Governess of Hawaii
Moaula, belonging to the government
Makaka 2d, belonging to the government
Paanau, belonging to Mrs. Bishop
Kauhuuhuola, belonging to J.S. Lyman
Wailoa, belonging to J.S. Lyman
Keaiwa, belonging to J.S. Lyman
Kaalaala, belonging to the government
Kapapala, belonging to Crown
Very Respectfully yours,
(Signature) Kahuku Ranch Co.

W.T. Martin, sworn, I live at Waiohinu, Kau, Island of Hawaii, have lived here twenty years, and am interested in a number of lands in Kau. They are Kiao, owned by me; Manuka and Kaulanamauna and Pakininui, which I lease; Keaa, owned partly by me and partly by Government; and Waiohinu, leased from Crown Commissioner and Kiolaku, kane. Have leased the pulu privilege on Kaalaiki from the government Land Agent, Kauhane. Know the boundaries of Pakininui [page 124] as pointed out. Two places were formerly pointed out to me; one above the new road where an ohia tree is marked and one place makai; same place as now showed me; have heard a little about other places being the boundary but do not remember names.Have seen the boundaries of Kiao lately and have owned said land about six or seven years. It is held by Royal Patent to W.C. Shipman. I know a part of the boundaries but do not know the old names of corners, do not know all of the boundaries as I was not there when the land was surveyed.

I understand S. Kupa, Kaanaana and Naihe owned land on Kiao by Royal Patent. Have heard of boundaries of Manukaa having leased and had charge of said land for about ten years; had en catching wild goats there. Have been told that the boundary at the beach is at a point called Kalaehumuhumu between Manukaa and Kahuku; thence mauka to a place called Papale o Kamaiwa near the old road. I have not seen the place. The boundary of the new road is at a place called Puuhilea makai of the road. Some men that were at work showed it to me. Mauka of said road is a large hole. Have heard the mauka boundary is at a place called Puulonalona, have since heard that the boundary at the road is at Kahiawai; heard this after the land was sold to Brown; have since heard that the boundary is between Puuohilea and Kahiawai, but do not remember the name of the place; did not hear of the last named boundary in old times. Kauwaa, kane and Keaka, kane, pointed out boundaries to me. Kauwaa, kane told me Manukaa was cut off by Keauhou and Kaalaala at Pahoehoepoha. Have heard within the last few days from Nauka, kane, about the boundaries of Keauhou. I do not know the boundaries of Manukaa. The only places I have been to on the boundaries are Puuohilea and Papaleokamaewa; cannot say what part of the point at sea shore is called Kalaehumuhumu.

I have seen an advertisement by Keka ma in the paper (I do not know what year it was printed) in which they mentioned a great many names of lands; Puuulaula, a red hill, Kalaehumuhumu; Puulonalona, also a place at the road, the name of which I forget. Do not remember the names of the other places. I was Government agent of the land of Manukaa at the time it was leased to Keaka ma by the year. I have had conversations with Mr. Jones about boundaries of adjoining Kahuku. I think it was in the coffee shop at Waiohinu where the conversation took place. I can point out boundaries of Manukaa on the new road. Messers Spencer and Haley had an interest in Kahuku and Manukaa at the time the road was built.

Cross-examined by J.G. Hoapili.
Paakihi and Kiao run in an Easterly direction. Puhi, kane, pointed out to me the boundaries of Pakininui, Kahuku, and mauka boundaries of Kiao as surveyed by Alexander. I do not know whether the points he showed me are the ones surveyed to or not.

Cross-examined, Kauhane, Questioner
When we went after shingles for the Church, a man now dead, told me the mauka boundary of Kiolakaa between Kahuku and Kiokaa was makai of Lae aa makai of the koa woods. Lae aa was called Kapeleoike and was on the land of Kahuku. Have heard the natives talking a great deal about the boundaries of lands within the last few days.

L.R. Macomber, sworn, I live on Kau in the District of Kau. First came into said place in the year 1853. As a witness Mr. Jones has not talked to me in reference to the boundaries of Kau. I have lived on Kahuku some length of time and know some of the boundaries as a carpenter by trade and have been in the habit of going into the woods after timber. Went after shingles for the mission House in 1854 and the natives told me the Koa woods were on Kahuku and the ohia woods were on Waiohinu. Kalakalohe, kane, was guide and showed me the boundary. Kahuku, being School land, it was necessary for us to get permission to go on it. I have been told that the lands of Kiolokaa, Napapohaku, Puueo, Mohoai, Waiopua, Keaa, Pakininui and Puulena are all cut off in the lower part of the woods by Kahuku. Waiohinu is the first land that runs clear through the koa woods. Have seen a tree near the lava stream on a hill which was marked by Mr. Alexander and makai of said tree another tree was marked and a bottle buried.

There is a water hole at the corner of Keaa. The surveying party went due North to the woods surveying nearly a mile, near to Keaa or Waiopua, their kamaainas said such was the course till they should get out of the woods. Kumauna, kane, Poaeae, Puhi perhaps and others were with Alexander. Have seen a hill in the woods which was pointed out to me as the boundary of Puueo and Kahuku, but [page 126] do not know the name of the hill. Have had a water hole called Waiokalala, situated on the old road pointed out to me as the boundary between Kahuku and Manukaa. I would know the place if I saw it, as the natives have shown it to me a great many times. A large rock at a point on the Kau side at sea shore is the boundary of Manukaa. I think the name of the point is Kaeaehumuhumu but have not been there. Have always heard Kahuku joined Keauhou in Kona on the mountain and Kapapala on the other side. An old man at Olaa told me Kahuku, Kapapala, Keauhou of Puna, and Waiakea all join Keauhou on the slope of Mauna Loa. I do not know the boundaries, it was said to contain over 300,000 Acres. I worked for Rev. Mr. Kinney on Kahuku. He obtained the privilege of cutting timber from Mr. Armstrong, who was then Minister of Public Instruction.

Kalakalohe is still living; he pointed out the boundaries between Waiohinu and Kahuku. I know the mauka boundary of Pakininui, it is on a hill near Kauhuala. Pakini has no woods. Kumauna, kane, and Koaeae, kane, have told me that Kahuku joined Keauhou on the mountain. Pakininui runs into the edge of the ferns and the boundary line from there to a water spring turns makai. Near said spring Keaa joins Wailopua and Kahuku the boundary being still inside of the fern. thence it runs North. The lands Mohoai and Waiopua do not go into the woods. Puueo joins Kahuku and runs into the wood to a hill. Paapohaku then runs further in, and joins Kahuku. Keolokaa runs into the woods further still, and is there cut off by Kahuka. Waiohinu runs to the Koa, said Koa being in groves above the ohia trees. Waiohinu is at mauka edge of ohia woods. The boundary being a few scattering koa trees. Kalakalohe said Kahuku joined Kapapala, the old man told me of his own accord.

W.T. Martin Recalled.
I have never heard of any Ili aina in Kahuku at sea shore but that Kahuku extends from Pakininui to Manukaa.[page 127]
Kumauna, kane, sworn, I was born at Kahuku before Kamehameha 1st went to Maui, and before the building of the Peleleu canoes. My parents told me the boundaries of Kahuku. At night we used to go out and catch birds to eat, and I asked them the boundaries as I did not wish to trespass on other lands, as we belonged on Kahuku. If people of other lands came onto Kahuku their birds and property were taken away from them and given to our chiefs. I know the land of Manukaa and the boundary between said land and Kahuku; my grandfather told me; Kalaehumuhumu a ridge of stones at a point at the sea shore is the boundary between Manukaa and Kahuku. Thence the boundary runs mauka to Pohakuloa, a large stone, thence mauka to Puainako, a resting place on the old road, thence mauka to Kaheawai. A swail [swale] runs from the beach up to this place and belongs to Manukaa, the boundary of Kahuku being on the upper edge toward Waiohino, said boundary not reaching the swail until you get onto the new road, thence from Kaheawaito Kahonopu (a large rock) thence to a large hole or crater, with trees growing in it, called Puuohia, thence runs along the pali to a cave called Kumualii 1st, thence the boundary between Manukaa and Kahuku runs toward Kona to ana Ohialele (a cave where natives used to live). Kapua being on the makai side and Kahuku on the mauka side, above the woods on the pahoehoe, thence to a large hill named Puuelele, woods being on the makai side of said hill. Thence to Kumualii 2d, a cave where Kalahiki joins Kahuku. thence to heiau of Kaakaiokaaha; thence to a cave Keananui, where Kahuku joins Keauhou, thence to Ahu a Umi; thence to Maunalei on Mauna Loa where Kahuku joins Hamakua; thence to Ohaikea on the Hilo slope where Manuka joins Kaalaala and Kapapala; have heard Keaka, Nauka, and another wish to put the boundary of Manukaa way into Kahuku and I have come to tell the true boundary and pali aku boundary between Pakininui and Kahuku is at Kealakahewahewa.

Kaumunala is at shore, Kealakahewahewa is mauka; thence to Puuahi (note: Witness asked to go to Kahuku and point out the boundaries; he is old and deaf; applicants request that as the old man seems tired and confused his testimony be taken at Kahuku on some other day. Thursday, the 13th instant, set to take the testimony at Kahuku. [page 128]
Witness is a very old man and is tired and confused, is unable to hear or answer the questions put to him.

Kamakana, kane, sworn, I was born on Kahuku. Am Kamaaina of the lands of Kahuku and Manukaa, having lived on both lands. I am now living on lands this side of Kahuku; was quite large large [sic] when they collected Sandal Wood. My Great Grandparents, Punoho and Nahea, had charge of Kahuku and Kiao. Kumauna and Nauka told me the boundaries when I lived on Kahuku years ago.

Boundary, as told me by them, commences at sea beach at a place called Kalaehumuhumu; thence to Pohakuloa, a large rock. Thence to Puainako on the old road to Kona; thence to Kahiawai a hollow this side of said hollow at the new Government road to Kona, is where Kahuku joins Kahiawai; thence to Kahonupu a hill; thence to long rock called Pohakuloa; thence to a hill called Kahapaimamo; thence to a hole or crater named Puuohookia, where there are whirlwinds (Note: I asked Nauka what lands are here, He told me it was the mauka boundary of Manukaa), this is mauka of the koa woods, on the pahoehoe; thence to Kumualii, a cave, thence to a hill; thence to cave of Ohialele, where the natives used to sleep; said cave is mauka of Honomalino. This is as far as I went with Kunianaia and Nauka. They showed me the boundaries to said cave and told me Kahuku went clear to Keauhou. We always used to take goats off of the mountain beyond this cave of Ohialele, without opposition from anyone.

I went with Alexander when he surveyed the boundary of Pakini. Commencing at piles of rocks (do not know the names of the rocks) at Kaumunala at the sea shore, thence to Puuani, a small hill; thence to Kaulukaumaha, a pile of rocks said to be makai boundary of Kiao. Thence I do not know the boundary until you get to Kilohana, a pile of rocks; thence toward a pali; said pali being a small one at the end of Kiao.

From Pau's house the line runs mauka through Kaoma and Uaala, covered by lava, thence to Hoolanamalia, a waterhole between Pakini and Kahuku; thence to Pukii, a ridge with stumps of ohia trees on it; thence toward Kilauea; Kahuku being mauka, and Pakininui and Pakiniiki being makai; to an ohia tree marked X; thence to Pohia, a water hole situated in a hollow. Near this [page 129] place Pakininui, Pakiniike and Kioa join Kahuku; thence to a pile of rocks; thence to an ohia tree marked X. This is as far as I went with the surveying part. Kumauna was the kamaaina. Naihe (Kuawa now in Honolulu), Namaka and others were with us.

Mr. Jones has not had any conversation with me in regard to the boundaries of Kahuku or urged me to say anything for his benefit, we had a talk on th ....

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.... a, Makaka is in the woods and Kahuku on the pahoehoe. There are some koa trees on Kaalaala and Makaka, the latter land and Kaalaiki join Kahuku on Apoohinba.

C. Hall, sworn (Witness J.G. Hoapili), I live at Kainaliu, Kona akau, have lived on these Islands over forty years, sometime in Hilo, but most of the time in Kona. Know the land of Keauhou in Kona. I have often gone onto the plains above the woods and have come across from Kona to Kau twice above the woods. It was a long time ago. Came up through the woods to Hale o Umi and looked at it. It was about eight or ten miles above the woods, but was covered up by the lave flow of 1845 or thereabouts, from there I went to Ahuaumi, up above here, slept there in a crack in the pahoehoe (The father of Keakaokawai, kane, was my kamaaina). From there we came to the Bay. I think Hale o Umi is mauka of Kapahoehoe, the distance between this and Ahuaumi is about fifteen or eighteen miles. Hale o Umi is on Keauhou, heard that Ahuamumi is on the boundary of Kona and Kau above nine or ten miles from here.

Kini was my kamaaina, the second time I came across. Kekaokawai's father piloted me all over Mauna Loa and Kea Ane Ahuaumi is near Hualalai (2nd Ahuaumi). He told me Kahuku and Keauhou ran straight up Mauna Loa following a ridge all the way. I have heard that Ahuaumi near Hualalai is on Keauhou.

Keauhou runs over to Puanahululu and meets Kaohe and Humuula; thence runs up the mountain with Humuula on the Hilo slope to Pohakuhanalei. Different kamaainas have pointed out these different places, Kuahine of Puako and others showed me these places, the father of Keiki and Kini showed me boundaries on this side, Keakaakawai, who is over here is the son of one of my kamaainas and he himself is a kamaaina on the mountain.
[page 144]
I could talk better native, when I came across from Kona to Kau than at the present day, came down from Ahuaumi here. I have been up from Kapua to Ahuaumi and understand that Keauhou cuts off Kapua below Ahuaumi, also Kaulanamauna is cut off and from there the boundary of Kau and Kona runs direct to the top of the mountain.

My opinion of the direction of the line of boundary between the Districts is based on the direction at shore. There is no land in South Kohala running side and side with Kona lands to top of Mauna Loa cut off by Hamakua. Kona and Kau run to the top of the mountain; Humuula runs up a long way but not to the top. There are two places on the mountain called Pohakuhanalei; one is a rock on the northeast slope; the other a crater on the south slope; the latter is not pointed out as a boundary. I have only crossed the boundary they pointed out to me. A ridge running up to the top of the mountain and to the other side; said ridge running between the crater of Mokuaweoweo and Pohakuhanalei.

Pohakuhanalei is about south of Mokuaweoweo and I think it is in Kau, about one third of a mile. Have never heard what land Mokuaweoweo is on; have always heard that Kahuku joins Keauhou mauka and that Kahuku and Kapapala join at Pohakuhanalei, on the northeast slope of Mauna Loa, but I do not know how far this way they join. Have worked in the woods and above Kahuku mauka of Waiohinu, catching goats and heard that Waiohinu cut off all the lands to Kapapala; can show pretty nearly the place where Hale o Umi was. Hale o Umiwas built of six stones, and was so close to the mountain that I could not see far towards Kau or Kohala. At Ahuaumi, boundary of Kona there are four or five piles of stones in a mawae or crack; there are two red hills in an easterly direction from Ahuaumi, and a water hole near one of them, from this point it is two or three miles directly toward the sea before you come to the thick woods.

Commission adjourned to 9 a.m. March 14, 1873 [page 145]

Kahuku, March 14th, 1873, Boundary Comm met according to adjournment.

J. Kaulia, kane, sworn, I live at Waiohinu, Kau, and according to my parents' statement, I was born about three years after the missionaries first arrived on the Islands. Am kamaaina of Kahuku and some other lands in Kau. In 1848 was Hope Luna Auhau, Moke Keawe and Kaahulama were also Hope Luna auhau of Kau and Pipi Luna Auhau. Pipi ordered me to inquire about boundaries of land as it was at the time they were setting apart the ia kohu and the Laau kohu o na konohiki. Pipi had lived in Kau a long time, and told me the boundaries. He said Kalaehumuhumu was the boundary between Manuka and Kahuku, and Kaumunale between Kahuku and Pakini, and Kahiawai awaawa belonged to Manukaa, and from there to Kualapapili [left blank] boundary of Kahuku and Pakini. Haumea was konohiki of Kahuku at that time. Uhu ia kohu and Koa laau kohu. Afterwards I came to live at Kaanaholua (near Pohakuloa) on Kahuku and near the boundary of Manukaa and Kahuku, catching goats.

Kawaa and Maewa and people of Kahuku pointed out the boundary to me. At time of making old road to Kona by S. Laanui keiki o Lilikolani [Liliuokalani?]. I wanted to get long poles and he told me to go to awaawa o Kahiawai, as those on this side belonged to Kahuku and were kapu; he was konohiki of Manukaa at that time.

After Kamehameha III went on to the mountain from Kahuku, I went up. Haalulu, an old kamaaina of Kahuku was my kamaaina. I do not know whether he is dead now or not. Paahao of Kahuku and others also went with us. Went to Hale pohaku and built a pen. Haalulu told me Puuohoohia was the boundary between Manukaa and Kahuku. We did not go there but went round to Ohialele, a cave which he said was the boundary between Kahuku and Kona. I think it is mauka of Milolii, did not say what land joins there. We were catching goats for Kila of Kahuku and I never heard of Kona people claiming them.
[page 146]
After Kahuku became School land I was Kahu Kula and Mr. Armstrong made me konohiki of Kahuku. This was in 1850 or as near as I can remember between that year and 1854. I took charge of the land according to the boundaries that I have stated without opposition. In 1870 I was konohiki of Manukaa and used to catch wild goats with Keaka ma.

Kakio, kane, claimed to be one of the lessees of land and got his kuleana. Keaka said the boundary was Waiakaalala near Puuohilea, between Kahuku and Manuka and tried to persuade me to catch goats there. Halulu told me Kahuku ran way beyond Ohialele and joined Keauhou of Kona. I went with him to Puukeokeo and he told me that Ahuaumi on Umi's road beyond Keokeo was the boundary between Keauhou and Kahuku. I have been two or three times to Ohialele and Puukeokeo. Umi's road was very distinct in olden times.

Haalulu told me Kahuku went mauka of Kukuiopae. In 1857 I lived a year at Kapuna in Kona, the natives there said there were wild goats on the land. I told them I had heard the pahoehoe mauka of the woods was on Kahuku and they said the goats were in the koa woods.

Kaiwi, sworn, I was born at Kahuku, Kau at the time of hookupumamo ma ka Lae, and have always lived there till a few weeks since. My kupuna and kamaainas pointed out boundaries to me as folks living on Kahuku were not allowed to take things from other lands. They told me Kalaehumuhumu was the boundary of Kahuku and Manuka at seashore, the sea bounding Kahuku makai; thence to Pohakuloa; thence to Puuainako on the old road; thence to a large stone near awaawa, kahawai near the new road; thence follow up the Kau side of the awaawa to Kapuhonu, from thence the next point on the boundary, that I know of is Puuohoohia between Kahupua and Manuka; Thence to Kumualii, a cave; thence to Ohialele, a cave on pahoehoe. I have been to Ohialele and this side of there since the lava flow. Saw a goat pen a little beyond Kumualii and close to the woods. Nauka, kane built it and told me it was beyond Ohialele on the pahoehoe with sons [page 147] of Kumauna (now dead) and brought goats from there to Halepohaha. It took two days to drive them. Since then, I do not remember how long since I lived at Kukuiopae and went up to catch goats. While there saw this cave called by them Kaanapaakai and recognized it as the one I slept in before. They said the land belonged to Kukuiopae, said cave is a half mile or more from the woods. Never heard of Puuhilea being the boundary of Kahuku before seeing the notice in the paper, which was published by Keaka. Have always heard Keauhou joined Kahuku on the mountain. When Keaka lived on kahuku we always used to chase goats at Puulonolono. When he moved to Manuka he claimed Puulonolono for that land. I have seen two Ahua o Umi, on Umi's road way beyond Puukeokeo. I think they are further toward Kona than Ohialele. Have not seen a place called Keanahua. Have heard Kahuku joins Kaalaala on the mountain but do not know the boundaries.

Cross-examined J.G. Hoapili
There are a good many places on the mountain called Ahuaumi, and Hale o Umi, and Alanui o Umi between Kahuku and Kona.

Paahao, Kane, sworn, I was born and now live on Pakini; have lived on Kahuku and often chased goats there.

Kaneakahuna and Haalulu, old kamaainas, pointed out some of the boundaries to me. Commencing at the seashore at a place called Kalaehumuhumu; thence mauka to Pohakuloa; thence to Puainako; thence to Kahiawai; thence to Kahonopu; thence to Punahohia; from thence to Kumualii, a cave. Manuka ends at Puuohohohia and Kona joins Kahuku there. Thence to Ohialele, was told Kahuku went up to Keauhou. Have been told by old kamaainas that Kahuku joins Kaalaala and Kapapala on Mauna Loa, but have never seen the boundary; have frequently been catching wild goats with Kaulia, now in court. He was our luna. I have often seen houses built by Kona natives and fires in them, and goats running down but have never seen the natives.
At the present time I am taking care of goats for W.T. Martin.
[page 148]
Cross-examined by J.G. Hoapili
Have seen several Kauhale o Umi in the mountain and a heiau o Umi; once after chasing goats beyond Keokeo, on my way home I saw a road which kamaainas told me was Umi's road and lead to Ahuaumi in Kona. Have not heard that the road I saw is the boundary of Kahuku and have not seen the famous Ahuaumi. Have heard Kahuku and Keauhou join.

J. Kauhane, Agent of Government lands of Kau states that he is satisfied with the evidence as to boundary between Manuka and Kahuku and that he has no testimony to introduce as to that boundary, but reserved his right to bring in evidence as to boundaries of Government lands adjoining Kahuku on the east side. The evidence to be heard on the return of Commission from Ohialele.

Commission adjourned until Monday, the 17th day of March, when they will proceed at Ohialele to look at boundaries.
R.A. Lyman, Commissioner of Boundaries, 3rd Judicial Circuit

The Boundary Commission met according to adjournment and proceeded to Ohialele, march 17th 1873.
Journal of Trip to Ohialele.
We left Kahuku, Monday March 17th, 1873 at 7 a.m. Party: R.A. Lyman, C.E. Richardson, J.G. Hoapili, Geo. W.C. Jones, W.K. Moi, C. Macomber, Naihe, Kaiwi, Kenao, Kamakana, Kumauna and others.

On the way we visited a large boulder on Kau side of Kahiawai, a short distance makai of the Government road, at an elevation of 1800 feet. Said boulder overhangs the awaawa. At the government road there is a pile of stones erected and whitewashed and ["]Kahuku["] is cut in the pahoehoe near the awaawa. Saw Kahonupuu in the distance. It bears North 30 East by pocket compass from the pile of white washed stones.

Kumauna remained at Manuka and Keaka joined us there, elevation 1660 feet.
Lunched at Kapua, elevation 1500 feet. Thence [page 149] to Honomalino where Nauka's son Pilialo joined us; thence to the upper edge of the woods on the mauka part of Honomalino where we pitched camp at an elevation of 5500 feet.

March 18th, 1873
Went from camp to Ohialele on foot over a road of rough pahoehoe covered with bushes and grass. Ohialele is a rocky knoll, of scrub ohia with a number of caves on it, a short distance below the koa woods. There is a clump of koa trees a few hundred feet makai, Erected a pile of rocks and cut the name ["]Ohialele["]on the makai side, elevation 5900 feet.

(Note: J.G. Hoapili on part of Crown Commission and Government Land Agent in reply to being asked if the boundaries were satisfactory? Stated that he had no further evidence as to boundaries from Puuhoohia to Ohialele.)

From thence proceeded up the mountain to Umi's road, elevation 7100 feet. Here we could see Pohakuhanalei on the top of Mauna Loa. Puulaula, a small red hill under a black ridge of lava was a little makai of us. Pohakuloa No. 3 on over left and a hill called Hanamauloa on our right. Thence we went to the hill called Hanamauloa, elevation 7200 feet, for a better view but the clouds shut the mountain in and we could only see black lava extending to the left of Ohialele; said to reach as far as Puelele. From Hanamauloa we returned to camp. Kaulanamauna joins the land of Manuka at Puuohoohia.

March 19th, 1873
Left camp and proceeded in a southeasterly course to Puuohoohia. On the way crossed the unction of Kaulanamauna and Honomalino with Kahuku, below the cave Kumualii.

(Note: Before leaving camp J.G. Hoapili stated that he had no further evidence to introduce as to boundary of Kahuku and adjoining lands from Ohialele to top of Mauna Loa) and returned to Kona. Erected a pile of stones on a hill makai side of crater of Poohoohia. Thence proceeded to a hill or rocky mound about two miles makai of Puuohoohia, almost in a direct line from there to Kahonapu, erected a pile of stones white washed them and cut X in a rock near the base [page 150] of the pile of stones; thence went mauka past the base of Hapaimamo down past Ahuana and Hale Pohaha to Kahuku Ranch premises.

Commission adjourned to meet at Keaiwa, March 21st 1873 to take testimony of J. Kauhane, witnesses as to boundaries of Government lands as one of them is to [sic] old and feeble to come to Waiohinu or Kahuku.
R.A. Lyman, Boundary Commissioner 3rd Judicial Circuit

Description of rocks and places on the boundary omitted in the journal.
Puuohoohia is an extinct volcano. The sides of the crater are covered with pumice and growth of scrub ohia pukeawe &c., the side toward the mountain is smooth regular outline, all the higher knolls being on the makai side. The natives say when the Kona winds are blowing a whirlwind is formed sending up clouds of sand &c, elevation 5430 feet. At an elevation of 4820 feet there is a rocky knoll, the line of boundary follows along this knoll on black aa from Kahounupu to Puuohoohia; Kahonopu from this point appears to be two large rocks on the pahoehoe with scrub ohia around them. Hapaimamo in Kahuku is a large smooth hill formed of pumice and sand with red spots on it and on the plain around it. It is an old crater with a gap in the south side where a stream of aa has flowed out.
R.A. Lyman, Boundary Commissioner 3rd Judicial Circuit

Kauhuhuula, March 21st 1873
Boundary Commission met at 2 p.m. according to adjournment.
Present: Geo. W.C. Jones, C.E. Richardson, J. Kauhane on part of Hawaiian Government for Kau lands, W.K. Moi, acting for J.G. Hoapili for Hawaiian Government lands in Kona, Crown Commissioner and Her Excellency, R. Keelikolani, F.S. Lyman, &c. [continued Part 2, page 151]
Certification: 085
Ahupua`a: Kahuku, Pt.1
District: Kau
Island: Hawaii
Ownership: Kahuku Ranch Co.
Year: 1876
Statistics: 61562 characters 11162 words
[Kahuku, Part 2, page 151]
Makaka, kane, sworn, on part of Government, I was born on Hilea at the time of Keona (First vessel of Kamehameha). I now live at Ninole kai, Kau, Hawaii, and have always lived there and at one time had charge of the land. Went with Ohia, my father-in-law, and he showed me boundaries of Kahuku, Makaka and Kaalaala. We went after sandalwood on Ninole, a land that runs from shore through the woods. He showed me a water hole on the pahoehoe near the edge of the woods called Waikaloa, and said Ninole joined Kaalaiki on the aa northeast side of said water hole, on aapoohina. Kahuku cuts off Kaalaiki and joins Ninole at two piles of stones in the middle of aapoohina (he mau ahu manu no Konamanu) where Makaka people used to place bird nets. Here Kahuku joins Makaka and both lands run up the mountain side by side to where the aa joins the pahoehoe. There Kaalaala joins Kahuku, at a large hole, with several smaller ones near by. Waiohinu joins Kaalaiki at Waikaloa. I do not know the boundary between Kahuku and Waiohinu. The woods are about as far as from this house over to the gulch makai; the groves on the Kona side of the water hole are not ten fathoms from it and are in Waiohinu. Do not know the name of lae laau. Have only been there once. Kahuku joins Ninole in the aa and not on the Kona side of it. The only boundary of Kaalaala I know of is where Kahuku joins it mauka of the aa. Kaalaiki and Ninole join Kahuku at Ahumanu. Makaka also joins at this place. I do not know of any place called
o Haalou but know that Waiohinu joins Kalaiki on the Kona side of Waikaloa, waterhole.

(I was grown up and married when I went after sandalwood [)]. Have only see the Ahu once which is the boundary of Kahuku, Kaalaala and Makaka. I can point them out. Kona side of the hole is Kahuku. They run up the mountain. I do not know the boundaries on top of the mountain.. Have never heard that Kahuku joins Kapapala or that Kapapala joins Keauhou of Kona on the mountain. Have heard that all the persons who went up on the mountain with me are dead.
[page 152]
Was called on Wednesday to came as a witness on this case. Have talked with some of the people this morning about it. Have not talked with Holona in regard to the boundaries. My son has gone to sea. I have relations at Kalaiki and Hilea, but I do not live with them. Ahia's son is my moopuna. Have seen hale pohaha when I went on the mountain. It is a black rocky hill with no vegetation on it. Do not know of Keokeo, Hapaimamo, Ihuanu or Kapoalaala or any other hills around there. I was so far off that I could not tell what the hill was composed of.

Nahala, kane, sworn, I was born and now live on Paanau. When I was young I went to see Kuiwai ma ka Lae. Have lived on lands adjoining Paanau and am a kamaaina of Kau. I know and have heard about part of the mountain. Went up with Keau, kane, my mother's brother, to catch goats on Makaka, my adopted father had charge of the land. Nahale and Kumakahonui[?] and others (now dead) went with us; went up three times, but only on Makaka. We went along above the woods to Waikaloa, which place the kamaainas told me was on Kaalaiki, was not told whether Kahuku joins Kaalaiki or not, but Makaka does join at the northeast side of the water hold, said hole being on the grass above the woods. The aa is about as far as from here to Paanau pali and belongs to Kahuku. The pahoehoe on the northeast side is Makaka. When Haalou from Kahuku came after birds, Makaka people prevented him from coming onto the pahoehoe. The aapoohina belongs to Kahuku, except a lihi ike. There are three caves on the pahoehoe near the aa. Said caves are on Makaka, do not know the names.

This is as far as I went. They told me Kahuku ran up by Makaka to Pahakuhanalei on the top of Mauna Loa and Kaalaala joined Kahuku there. I do not know other boundaries of Kahuku, as we did not go where we could see them.

I have never seen or heard of any heiau above the woods; have not heard that Kahuku joins Kapapala or that Kapapala joins Keauhou of Kona.

There are a great many lands between here and [page 153] Ninole I know the boundaries as far as I have been and had them pointed out to me. Do not know boundaries of other lands. It is a long time since I went on to the mountain for birds. I know all the boundaries of Makaka as they were pointed out to me. Went after goats on Makaka when Swain was on Kahuku, and Spencers; father-in-law, owned the land of Kahuku.

The Government, having no other witnesses, Boundary Commission stands adjourned until further notice is given to all parties.
R.A. Lyman, Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit

Hilo, March 28th 1873
Boundary Commission met to take testimony of Wahine, Kahuakai, and Keliilohe as the Commissioner wishes more definite evidence as to the boundary between Kahuku and land adjoining in Kau, on the mountain.
Present: W.H. Reed on part of Kahuku Ranch Co., and Crown lands; G.W. Akau Hapai on part of Government in place of J. Kauhane.

Wahine, kane, sworn, I was born at Waimea, at the time of ordaining the heiau at Kawaihae. Moved to Kapapala, Kau at the time Kuakini appointed Tax Collectors around Hawaii, think it was about the middle of that year. Now live and have been living for several years past at Panau, Puna, Hawaii. Lived at Kapapala a great many years. Went on Mauna Loa with the Exploring Expedition in 1842 and camped at Mokuweoweo. Keaweehu was our guide. He was a kamaaina of Kapapala. He said Kapapala was on this side of the mountain taking in Mokuweoweo and Kaalaala, the other side of the crater. He said, Kahuku joined Kaalaala, cutting off all other Kau lands above the woods. Do not know where Kaalaala joins Kahuku or if Keaiwa joins it at all.

Keaweehu told Pea, in our presence that the pili is on small lands and pahoehoe on Kahuku. This was on the mountain, but he did not point out the boundaries between lands. [page 154] He said the Kaikunane lived on Kaalaala and Kaikuahine (nick name) lived on Kapapala and gave her brother rights of way across for bird catchers to go and catch uwao and geese on Kaalaala, but on the slope between Kapapala and Kahuku the land of Kaalaala extended up. Keaweehu said Kaalaala and Kapapala joined Kaohe, but did not say where.

Kahuakai, kane, sworn, I was born on Keauhou, ili of Kapapala and was old enough to go with my parents at the time of the Ohaikea. Have been living for the past three years at Panau, Puna, Island of Hawaii. Am a kamaaina of Keauhou but not of other lands. My parents never pointed out boundaries to me. I have been up to where they used to get out canoes on Keauhou, but not on Kapapala. Keauhou is Kupono of Kapapala.

Keliilohe, kane, sworn, I am a kamaaina of Keauhou, not of Kapapapla. Do not know and have not heard what the boundaries of Kahuku are.

Kaoio, kane, sworn, I was born at Kapapala, Kau. Have heard after the Hookupu olona at Kalalau, Komoia was luna. I now live at Waiakea, ma kamaaina of places near where I was born and have heard about boundaries of Kau lands on the mountain from Ana, kane, and Aheakealina. And now lives on Kaalaala, but Aheakealani is dead. They told me Kaalaala was between Kapapala and Kahuku. They told me boundaries between Kaalaala and Kahuku. I have forgotten the boundaries near the woods but remember they said Kaalaala went to Pohakuhanalei and Kahuku, near there below Mokuweoweo. Have heard Kahuku joins Keaiwa above the woods. Ana and Kaonohi told me this. My father used to be a kamaaina of Kapapala, and told me boundaries.
[page 155]
Note: Awakamanu, kane, of Olaa is said to be a kamaaina.

Commission adjourned till further notice.
R.A. Lyman, Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit

Office of Boundary Commission, Hilo, May 14th 1873
The Boundary Commission met to take testimony of Kenoi and Awakamanu, as to boundaries of Kahuku, after due notice to all parties interested.
Present: Geo. W.C. Jones, C.E. Richardson and W.H. Reed on part of applicants; J. Kauhane for Hawaiian government, W.P. Ragsdale, acting for J.G. Hoapili on part of Crown Commissioner and Hawaiian Government for Kona lands.

Kenoi, kane, sworn, I was born at Kapapala at the time of the building of Kiholo. Am a kamaaina of Kapapala and know the boundary between lands of Kahuku and Kapapala. My kupuna used to point out boundaries to me when we went on the mountain to catch birds. Keaweehu, father of my wife, and Kama, his nephew showed them to me. Keaweehu was an old bird catcher. Kapapala first joins Kahuku at Aapoohina. Kaalaala joins Keaiwa through the woods and there both lands are cut off by Kahuku and Kapapala. We did not pay much attention in old times, to what lands were in the woods. I have never been up to them. Used to go to Kapapala. All these lands are all cut off on the edge of the woods. The pali above the woods is called Paaloa, the pahoehoe on the pali is called Papaulaula. There Kaalaala ends and Kahuku joins Kapapala. The aapoohina is a short distance from the Papaulaula. The land of Moaula joins Kahuku and Keaiwa at a Poohina, where the grass grows, belongs to these lands and the pahoehoe to Kahuku. The Apoohina is all on Kahuku, and the pahoehoe, on the South [page 156] side belongs to Kapapala. From this point the boundary between Kapapala and Kahuku is the northern edge of A Poohina, running up to Pohakuhanalei, a large hill near the top of the mountain. At the time we went on the mountain they pointed out to us points that we could not go beyond the Apoohina and where the Kahuku people could not come beyond, but did not tell us where the small lands ended.

Cross-examined by J. Kauhane.
We used to go on the mountain to catch mamo or uwao and geese; the latter belonged to Kaalaala. There was a road from Kaalaala running past Richardson's, clear to Humuula. The land belonged to Kapapa, and everything on it, but the Kaalaala people of Kaalaala could go after geese and other birds anywhere on Kapapala, and all persons going over the road had to divide the birds with Kaalaala people. In the time when Liiloa was the Chief, and Awinu[?] and Kakohi were the kahunas. They took the birds and put the kapu on the uwao and nene, but ao and mamo were left. Kapapala and the people of that land could take them and divide with the Chief of Kapapala.

Awakamanu, kane, sworn, I was born at Kahuku at time of Okuu and lived there until the time of Hookupumamo at the Lae (1835) in time of Kamehameha III. Am a kamaaina of Kahuku, now live on Olaa in Puna. I used to go after birds, and the boundaries were pointed out to me by Moo, kane, for if we of Kahuku caught birds on other lands, they were taken away from us. Kalaehumuhumu is boundary between Manuka, and Kahuku, thence to Awaawa called Kahiawai by the road. Kahuku running on this side, thence to a large hole with water it it, called Kamokulimo, thence to Puulonolono, a grove of trees, the boundary on Kona side of grove, thence to hill called Puuhoohia. Manuka ends at this hill and Kahuku runs over to Ohialele cutting off the land of Kaulanamaunamauna and Kapua and Honomalio. Ohialele is a mound with a cave, from this point you can see the surf break at Kapua. Kahuku joins land of Keauhou at Panewalu (a place where Moo, kane, killed eight Kona men, they shut him up in a cave and when he got out he killed them). From Ohialele the boundary [page 157] between Kahuku and Honomalino runs to a grove of trees called Kamokupukela, ohia trees on the pahoehoe beyond Ohialele. I think about a mile distant. Kamokupukala is on Kahuku; the boundary between Honomalino and Kahukuruns makai of this grove to Panewalu above the woods. Panewalu is a lae aa along distance from Ohialele. Oahialele is a high ridge of aa that breaks through when you walk on it, and is about half way between Punopoohia and Panewalu. Honomalino reaches to this point. I think we never went beyond here to catch birds as Keauhou folks would take them away. The boundary between Kahuku and Keauhou runs mauka to a water hole, Waio, where the cattle that were let go from Holuloa used to drink. I do not know as I could identify the place now. The high aa is boundary. Kahuku is on Kau side of aa.

There are two small hills near the aa a good ways above Umi's road. The water hold, Waio is close to the foot of the mountain, mamani grows there. The aa from Panewalu ending before you reach the hole. Cannot see woods from there. Do not know anything about the boundary of Kahuku and Keauhou above this place. Pakininui joins Kahuku at Kulanala and runs up in to the woods to Kilohana. The koa is all on Kahuku, the Pele o ike is in the woods. I have not been up the boundaries through these woods. Went to Apoohina. There Moo, kane, told me Kahuku and Kapapala and Makaka joined. Makaka makai and Kapapala on the north side of Apoohina. From thence Kapapala and Kahuku run to Pohakuhanalei. Have been to this place called Pohakuhanalei. Kaalaala claimed the geese on this side of Apoohina but the land belonged to Kapapala. I never heard Kaalaala had any land there. Did not have the boundary of lands makai of Kahuku pointed out to me.

Cross-examined by Government Agent.
If we went after geese this side of the aa, Kaalaala people took them away. If we went after uwao Kapapapala people took them away. If we went below Apoohina to catch ao Makaka people took them away and if they came above Apoohina we took them away. I have seen water holes below Apoohina near the woods but do not know the name of them.
[page 158]
Commission adjourned until further notice to all parties interested.
R.A. Lyman, Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit

Notes from a Journal, October 21st 1873
Left Kapapala and camped that night at Kauhuhuula gulch, elevation 6300 feet.

October 22d. Proceeded towards a round hill on the western slope of Mauna Loa. Struck AaPoohina at an elevation of 7300 feet. There we could see aa running to top of Mauna Loa and further down on the edge of the woods the latter being covered with bushes and soil with a little moss.

First struck aa near the woods; mauka of a knoll in the woods, covered with koa and ohia.

After traveling over an hour came to aa running into the woods, said aa being over grown more or less with gray moss, grass, and bushes. This aa is said to run to shore, between the lands of Ninole and Kaalaiki, in crossing it we came to the remains of two platforms or ahu of stone. Left the aa at two o'clock in the afternoon at an elevation of 6100 ft and came to camp at five o'clock at an elevation of 5200 feet in a koa grove by Peleoike from thence we went to Kahuku, thence to Kaalaiki.

Kaalaiki, October 23d 1873
Kaele, kane, sworn, I was born at Hilea at the time of Kiholo, now the land of Kahuku having lived there twenty years. Went with Kumuana, kane, after sandalwood. Kaalaiki and Waiohinu join at Namano o Haialoula ohia, went after sandalwood, ....

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.... back further up the mountain. My impression from what Naholo said, was that a little beyond where we camped the second night, that the land of Kaalaala extended through the woods, and ran up the mountain for a short distance about woods in the shape of a wedge in this manner.Kahuku / Kapapala

I think we camped the second night directly mauka of Makaka. Before I went up the mountain I always heard that Kahuku and Kapapala joined each other above the woods, and ran up and met Keauhou of Kona. Previous to going up with Naholo I did not hear that Kaalaala ran up above the woods. I made a memorandum of names of places above the woods that Naholo pointed out to me. I do not know where it is now, whether I left if with map in hands of Capt. Brown. The map was destroyed at the time the lava destroyed Capt. Brown's house. I have always heard that Kahuku runs towards Kona, and cut off Kona lands and joins Keauhou. Do not remember where it joins Keauhou. Have had boundary between Kahuku and Manukaa pointed out it an awaawa on Government road. It is the awawa with two large boulders on this side of it. The pile of stones below road is at this point.

Kumaunu was one who told me. When I chained the road by direction of Minister of Interior. Capt. Haley and W.T. Martin went with me. Martin told me then that this awawa was the boundary. Martin was the one who made the Government road. Kumaunu was the first one who told me about this boundary. A good many others have told me the same thing.

Cross-examined by J. Kauhane. I think we slept above Makaka the second night. It rained so that we could not see the shore.

[Cross-examined] By Commissioner. Naholo appeared to be a kamaaina and knew just where he was going. I saw Naholo a few days ago. After crossing aa stream near camp the first night, camped on Puna side & [page 377] on Puna side of flow. Next morning we went on and came to another old aa flow and crossed it. Do not remember whether we crossed more than this one. It was called APoohina from gray moss growing on it. The aa was all overgrown near woods. Mauka not much overgrown. After crossing the aa, we went a long distance toward Hilo through grass flat. Do not know how many miles we went. When we camped the second night, we had got through the long grass, and were where the short grass was. After crossing the aa, we found swampy places & where water had been flowing in small gullys. Capt. Doane was with us also. We could distinguish the upper edge of forest as we traveled along above the woods. I heard what I have stated from Naholo, Kumaunu and other old people living on Kahuku before and after I purchased it. They all told me the same thing.

Within a year I have heard differently, but from persons who were not kamaaina. Naholo told us Kahuku cut off all the makai lands to Kaalaala. We took a compass along with the intention of reaching boundary of Kapapala and then to survey back on the lines. There was too much fog for an hour or so before we got to camp, for us to see around. The aa runs slanting down the mountain. It is now about nine years since we went up with Naholo, and he has failed a great deal since that time, both physically and mentally, and he is now blind. I do not think that his memory is good at this time.

Commission adjourned to meet at Kahuku on the 17th of this month if Kekua returns from Puna before that time.
R.A. Lyman, Commission of Boundaries, 3d Judicial Circuit

Kahuku, Kau, April 17, 1875
The Commission met according to adjournment.
Present: G.W.C. Jones, J.G. Hoapili and J. Kauhane.

Kekua, kane, sworn says, I was born at Kapapala, Kau, Hawaii. My father belonged to Kapapala, and my mother to Honuapo. I am 44 years old. Kauluamakaaina was my father, and was a kamaaina of Kapapala. Kameahaiku, sister to my father, told me the boundaries of lands from Kahuku to Kapapala. She told me that Kaalaala was a land running through woods, a lae ohia being the boundary between Kapapala and Kaalaala to upper edge of woods. She said that the Kaalaala people were so spry that their land joined Humuula of Hilo. They were spry going after birds. She said that Makaka and other lands [page 378] extended only to the upper edge of woods. She said that Kahuku reached to the Puna side of the A Poohina to an ahu built by my kupunakane, and mauka of that a mawae, and thence boundary ran to Pohakuhanalei. She said that my kupunakane hid a kauwila club in that mawae. I have never seen these places. She told me this after she had been called to given [sic] evidence on the boundaries of Kapapala. She died shortly after telling me this. When called on to be a witness she denied being a kamaaina, because she said it was a mea pilikia to tell the boundaries. She said that Kaalaala had a kuleana in the birds above Keaiwa, Makaka &c., and that Keaweehu told her that the lands of Kahuku and Kapapala joined each other above the woods. She also said that Keaweehu told her that on the other side of the mountain that there was an old aa flow running down the side of the mountain from Pohakuhanalei, and that it was the boundary between Keauhou of Kona and Kahuku.

Cross-examined. She said that Kahuku reached to Puna side of the A Poohina and that Kahuku and Kapapala joined but did not say where. She was quite feeble at the time she told me this, was not sick, and was of sound mind.

(Note: Mr. Kauhane says that this woman was an exception to most old women, and talked knowing what she was about until time of her death)

She told me this on her return from Keaiwa, and said that she did not tell the boundaries to the Commissioner as she was afraid to tell, and her husband and others told her not to tell the boundaries. I told her to tell them and she then told me. My wife, and Zapenui, her husband, were present at the time.

J. Kauhane asked to have Honorable F. S. Lyman examined by Commissioner at Hilo, and questioned as to what he has heard in reference to Kahuku, Kalaala, Makaka and Kapapala joining above the woods, &c. &c.

G.W.C. Jones asks if he has information in reference to Kapapala and Kaalaala, why he does not have information in reference to Makaka, when he had a personal interest in that land.

Mr. Kauhane says that he has no other witnesses.
Commission adjourned to meet at Hilo, April 24, 1875.
R.A. Lyman, Commissioner of Boundaries, 3d Judicial Circuit.

[page 379]
Hilo, April 24th 1875
Commission met at house of F.S. Lyman, Hilo, according to adjournment from Kahuku, Kau.

F.S. Lyman, kane, sworn says, I lived in Kau from 1859 to 1868, and have been surveying lands in Kau from 1854 to the present time. Know lands of Kahuku, Makaka, Kaalaala and Kapapala. I do not know as I ever heard where these lands bound each other, until within the last two or three years. I never went out on to the mountain where these lands bound Kahuku. The natives always spoke of Kaalaala as being a large land, and running way up on the mountain, and joiningKaohe of Hamakua. Never heard where its boundaries are above the woods, or of its width. I have heard that Kapapala runs to top of mountain. Mr. Webster got me to find out where the boundary between Keauhou, Ili of Kapapala and Kapapala was. I went to Kilauea Dec. 31, 1863 with kamaaina and C.E. Richardson one of the lessees of Kapapala. He was a lessee at that time. Kenoi and Kehilohi were the kamaaina. They pointed out the boundary between Kapapala and Keauhou as running up from Kilauea to between Puuike and Puulaula hills on the slope of Mauna Loa, that slopes towards Waiakea woods, as over as you can see from the volcano, and said the boundary between these lands continued on in the same direction, towards Mauna Kea. I made a memorandum of it which I have here. I made no inquiries of them as to boundaries on the Kona side of Kapapalaa , and did not ask them what lands joined Kapapala on the mountain on that side. Heard that Kaalaala joined it in the woods, and hearing that Kaalaala joined Kaohe of Hamakua, I thought it cut Kapapala off, but not where it joined. Heard something about boundaries of Kahuku when Alexander was surveying the lower portion of it, but do not remember about mountain boundaries.

Cross-examined. I do not remember having heard that Makaka runs above the woods, or what land cut if off, previous to the question of boundaries being brought before the commissioner for settlement. If it was a large land running above the woods, I think I should have heard of it before. I only remember hearing that it extended above the woods, since you commenced taking testimony on Kahuku and it struck me as being a new thing, as something I did not know of before. The lands I understood as being the lands taking the principal part of the mountain in the District of Kau are Kahuku, Kaalaala and Kapapala, I never heard explanation about bird rights [page 380] of Kaalaala in former times, until I heard it given in this case.
Case continued until further notice.
R.A. Lyman. Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit.

Copy of G.H. Davies letter filed May 12, 1875.

Luka Hale, 7 May 1875
Mea Mahalo R.A. Lyman
Aloha oe
Ua loaa mai ia maua o Kaopua, ke kanoha, e haiaku ia oe, mau ka mea i mahaloia J.G. Hoapili mai, kou koolua ma ka hoolohe ana i ka olelo ike no na palena aina. Penei kana e ao mai nei e hai aku ia oe Ua hooholoia i ke kuahiwi ka palena, a i oleuia[?] i ka pau ana mai o ka laau loloa. No ka hiki oleo Kaopua ke palapala okoa ku ia oe molaila, e lawe oe i kamanao o keia palapala no maua a elua.
Me ke aloha
(Signed) G.H. Davis

Note: G.H. Davies owns Kealia S. Kona
Kaopua owns Kaohe 4, Olelomoana & Papa 2., South Kona, Hawaii
R.A. Lyman. Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit.
See Folio 383 of this book

Kahuku Ahupuaa, District of Kau, Island of Hawaii, Boundary Commission, Volume B, pp. 383-389

The Ahupua`a of Kahuku Kau, Continued from Folio 381 of this Book

Hilo, February 26th, 1876.
Notice of filing of survey of Kahuku and of time set for hearing of all objections to granting of certificate of boundaries in accordance with notes of survey made by D.H. Hitchcock, personally served on all interested parties or their agents.
The Kilauea coming in late, the hearing was adjourned until 10 o'clock of Thursday forenoon, February 17, 1876.
R.A. Lyman. Boundary Commissioner, 3d Judicial Circuit.

Hilo, February 17th 1876
Commission of Boundaries for the 3d Judicial Circuit sat according to adjournment.
Present: C.E. Richardson and D.H. Hitchcock on the part of applicants and Madame Akahi, J.K. Kaai for Her Royal Highness R. Keelikolani's lands in Kona. J.W. Keaomakani for J.G. Hoapili for Keelikolani's lands in Kau, and Kaopua's lands in Kona. J. Kauhane for Hawaiian Government, and E.G. Hitchcock for Agent of Crown Lands and D. Kahaulelio.

Map and notes of survey of Kahuku filed, and also map and notes of survey of Kapapala.

D.H. Hitchcock, sworn, says, I surveyed the land of Kahuku and made the map of land and notes of survey. On the Kau or East side I took the land surveyed by F.G. Lyman between this land and Pakini Nui, and the notes of survey given in Royal Patents of adjoining lands to the makai edge of the woods; and from there I ran a line straight to lower end of the aa flow, that is said to be the boundary between Kahuku and Waiohinu; thence I ran a straight line to a pile of stones on the aa, said to have been put up by F.S. Lyman and then up to a large koa tree; thence I followed Lyman's survey of Waiohinu to ohia tree marked X, and then ran along to a point 38.50 chains makai of Lyman's survey. I think Lyman's survey of Waiohinu will just touch the mauka ends of the tounges [sic tongues] of woods that run mauka. The land above the woods is covered with scrub ohia trees. My survey, I think, will run quite a number of points of woods, but is not far enough makai to take to the makai edge of the kipukas above woods. The woods are extending further mauka every year at this place. I then ran up to point on Lyman's line; From this point Lyman's line runs to rock marked W. I think it is about 15 chains mauka of point of woods Namanuhaalou. This point of woods runs way mauka with a large kipuka on each side of it. The point of woods is most a mile wide. I chained around it. [page 384] I cut off only a small portion of this point of woods, and surveyed makai into the kipuka. From there on the mauka edge of the woods is very plain. I do not know what lands extended to the upper edge of the woods. I surveyed along the upper edge of woods until I came [to] the ahu of Kilohana. I then surveyed makai until came to a large koa tree. The woods is some distance makai of Kilohana.

I found old aa until I got most to Kilohana. It is overgrown with grass and bushes, and is of the same general character.

I do not know which is the A Poohina, as it all appears the same to me. The place Lidgate called the corner of Kapapala is way towards he middle of the aa. Kaiwi was my kamaaina, but had no kamaaina to point out the corners of the land that reach to the upper edge of woods. I had a copy of the evidence taken by Commissioner, and saw that most of the witnesses said that the boundary ran along the mauka edge of woods, and so I surveyed along there, to makai of Kikohana, as the owners of Kahuku wished me to survey there. The evidence says that the APoohina is on Kahuku, and the land Hilo side of aa is Kapapala.

On the Kona side I comenced [sic] at pile of stones at Kaheawai, and surveyed along land of Manuka makai to Kukuihaa running on the Kona side of this place and from there I made a straight line to point Kalaehumuhumu at shore, the line passing about a chain on the Kona side of cave Pohakuloa.Since I surveyed this line I have hard from a Manuka man that there is another place called Pohakuloa way towards Waiohinu of this point and that the boundary of Kahuku is at that place. It would make a very crooked boundary if it goes there. The line surveyed does not join the Mawae until you get to road. The mawae makai of that is on Manuka. From Government road I went mauka to Honopu, and thence to pile of stones on ridge at Pohakuloa, the pile put up when the Commissioner went there with Jones, Richardson and Kaiwi. Thence, I ran to pile of stones on hill Puuhoohia; thence makai to aa, where Kaiwi said Kapua comes through. I find that the Kokolau is at upper edge of woods, and so I surveyed along mauka edge of woods to 31.00 chains makai of the water hole above Honomalino and thence I surveyed along edge of woods to Ohialele. From there on it was hard to tell where the edge of the woods is. I surveyed along cutting across Kipuka and points of woods. I decide to call the upper edge of woods where we found the big stumps of trees that had been destroyed by fire. As they say the country was burn[t] over formerly. Above there the trees do not look over 20 years old. [Continued Part 3, page 385]
Certification: 085
Ahupua`a: Kahuku, Pt.1
District: Kau
Island: Hawaii
Ownership: Kahuku Ranch Co.
Year: 1876
Statistics: 17842 characters 3103 words
[Kahuku, Part 3, page 385]
Above Kaapuna we surveyed around a large point of woods. Above lands of Honokua, Hookena and Kealia, I had kamaaina sent up by Lumilumi, konohiki for R. Keelikolani. The line of survey I have filed follows the woods as given in the compromise, and does not follow the points given by the kamaaina. I had a kamaaina with me named Kemaka, but he could not point the points in the boundary claimed by him, and got lost in trying to go back a short distance to the camp. The kamaaina Komaka (the one who went with the Commissioner of Boundaries on mountain) pointed out all the placed he said he could without any difficulty.

Before I made the survey I sent word to W.T. Martin, Mr. Kauhane and others, but they did not send any one to go with me, and point out the boundaries claimed by them.

The survey running to place called Komakawai cuts off a corner of the land Kealia belonging to Madam Akahi. Komakawai is on the land Kealia that belongs to Kealiholani. I will change the notes of survey there. In my survey I have run a straight line from Komakawai to Mokuaweoweo and from Mokuweoweo straight to Kilohana.

Note: All parties represented at the hearing asked questions as to different points, as Mr. Hitchcock went along explaining his map and notes of survey.

F.S. Lyman, kane, sworn says, I surveyed the land of Waiohinu and across the mauka end of the land. I have drawn a sketch of the line surveyed by me from the big koa tree to Namanuhaalou, and have also drawn a sketch of the line surveyed by Hitchcock from his notes of survey. Our lines both meet at point marked A. I have the sketch of the two surveys here. I measured up through the woods in the land of Waiohinu. The dotted --- line on the sketch is where I think that the mauka edge of the woods is. Kalakalohe, the kamaaina of Waiohinu was with me. He said that the kipuka belonged to Waiohinu and that the uwao are mostly in the kipuka, and belonged to Waiohinu, and that the Kahuku people used to steal the uwao, and the Waiohinu people used to steal the geese. The line of woods at Namanuhaalou is not as distinct as it is further towards Kona. I put the corner above Namanuhaalou but on the pahoehoe clear of the woods, as Kalakalohe in his evidence given as at hearing evidence of boundaries of Waiohinu says that the mauka corner of the land is as far above the woods as from Court house at Waiohinu to Macombers and he pointed out that place as being the corner. I had a copy of the evidence he gave at hearing for settlement of boundaries of Waiohinu, but did not have a copy of the evidence he had previously given at the hearing for the settlement of the boundaries of Kahuku. From point marked B, I could see all the [page 386] points except the one on sketched marked W. From W I chained across on the pahoehoe to knoll, and then went through the trees to the big koa tree. If the kipuka belong to land of Waiohinu, then Mr. Hitchcock's survey is too far makai and if the kipuka belong to Kahuku, then my line of survey is too far mauka. From A to W, I followed the pahoehoe except near Namanuhaalou where the pahoehoe extends down into the kipuka. My corner above Namanuhaalou is mauka of the woods for the reason I have already stated. From A to big koa tree the makai line of pahoehoe runs close to woods and into woods in some places. The point marked W is on an ahua pahoehoe. The east boundary of Waiohinu is in the center of Namanuhaalou.

Testimony closed
E.G. Hitchcock, attorney for agent of Crown Lands, says that he is willing to accept the line of survey made by Lyman from big koa tree to point A, and from there to Namanuhaalou as surveyed by D.H. Hitchcock, does not think it would be a fair thing to take Hitchcock's line all the way across Waiohinu. As far as line is surveyed between Kahuku and land of Honomalino has no objections to line run. Thinks Lydgate's survey of line between Kahuku and Kapapala ought to be boundary.

J. Kauhane says as far as line is run between Kahuku and Kaalaiki and Ninole, he thinks the survey is right. Along Makaka and Kaalaiki the testimony is conflicting and that if decision is given against government that he will leave it to the Minister of Interior to decide wither to appeal or not. W.T. Martin has written to the Minister of Interior about boundary bet ....

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.... called Keanahalulu; thence to where this line intersections the direct line from Komakawai to top of the mountain North 40.00 chains; thence
North 68° East 638.00 chains along boundary of Keauhou 2d to center of crater of Mokuaweoweo; thence
South 40° East 695.00 chains to ahu on hill mauka of koa woods at place called Kilohana; thence
South 24° 40' East 34.00 chains to large koa tree standing in koa woods marked “[Diamond shape]” and “W,” corner of Kaalaala on boundary of this land and Kapapala (Kapapala bounds this land from Mokuaweoweo to this point.). Thence along mauka line of heavy forest
South 23° West 102.50 chains to ohia tree marked “[Right-side up V crossed by upside-down V]” and “[2 Xs one on top of the other]” in edge of timber;
South 30 1/4° West 240.00 chains to ohia tree marked X on 4 sides
South 42° West 114.00 chains to ohia tree marked K on North side and V on South side
South 46½° West 234.00 chains to ahu near edge of awawa[?]
South 32° West 72.00 chains to ohia tree marked X and A
South 76° West 40.00 chains to ohia tree marked K;
South 13° West 30.75 chains to ohia tree blazed on 4 sides [page 186]
South 35° West 38.50 chains to ohia tree marked X
South 46 1/4° West 73.00 chains to ohia tree marked A on boundary of land of Waiohinu
South 16½° East 12.50 chains to ohia tree (as compromise
South 45½° West 185. chains to Big koa tree marked X on 4 sides as marked by F.S. Lyman, Northwest corner of land of Waiohinu. thence along aa flow as follows:

South 48 1/4° East 5.08 chains to ahu on edge of aa;
South 37 1/4° East 20.10 chains to ahu on edge of aa;
South 16 3/4° East 234.00 chains to point aa in woods;
South 38° East 120.00 chains to ohia tree marked X
South 20½° East 41.00 chains to ohia tree marked X
South 5½° East 29.00 chains along Government land of Puueo;
South 14½° West 37.50 chains;
South 47 3/4° West 33.00 chains;
South 75 3/4 West 18.60 chains to corner of land of Pakini iki;
North 14° West 244 chains to corner of Pakini Nui;
North 53½° West 9.10 chains to ohia tree on North side of Puuo Kahuku.
South 28 1/4° East 80 chains to top of Puuo Kahuku;
South 121.15 chains to ahu on aa flow of 1868;
South 67° West 26.00 chains to land held by Noahe's Patent
South 69½° West 20.00 chains across top of Naohe's land to where an old Wiliwili tree formerly stood; thence along land of Kiao as follows:

South 65 3/4° West 1.55 chains
South 85° West 9.23 chains
North 87. 3/4° West 8.16 chains;
North 67° West 1.32 chains to top of pali;
North 82° West 9.75 chains.
West - 14.30 chains
South 89° West 14.44 chains to ahu;
South 79 3/4° West 10.26 chains to ahu
South 76° West 7.15 chains to ahu; [page 187]
South 74° West 17.62 chains to ahu
South 58½° West 12.48 chains to ahu and rock marked Kahuku A
South 25 1/4° East 43.68 chains to ahu;
South 34½° East 12.95 chains to ahu on edge of aa flow;
South 8½° East 13.50 chains to ahu on edge of aa flow;
South 6° East 52.90 chains to ahu on edge of aa flow;
South 3½° West 40.42 chains to ahu at corner of lands Kiao and Pakini Nui at place called Kaumukaunala [sic]
Thence along boundary of Pakini nui
South 34½° West 328.50 chains to point of commencement on sea coast.
Containing an area of 184.298 acres more or less
As surveyed by D.H. Hitchcock
R.A. Lyman, Commissioner of Boundaries, Third Judicial Circuit

Costs in full $380.25, including 3 trips on Mauna Loa looking at boundaries, advertisement of hearing, &c.
17 hearings, 170.-; 7 days traveling looking at boundaries 70.-$240.-
Traveling expenses 3 trips to mountain & 3 times going from Hilo to Kau to have hearings, $60.-
recording 273 folio testimony &c, $68.25
Advertising hearings, $2.-
Certificate 2.-; Stamp, 1.-; 14 folios description Certificate; $10.-
Less 4 days charged to adjoining lands as follows:, $40.-
(Paid in full), $340.25
charged 1 day owners of Pakini Nui
3 days agent crown lands 30 Waiohinu & Kapapala
Examined & Cross-examined
R.A. Lyman

[No. 85, Kahuku Ahupuaa, District of Kau, Island of Hawaii, Boundary Commission, 184.298 acres, 1876; Hawaiian transcription by J. Quintero]